Evidence connecting urban design with health


Impact of the urban environment on health

Health impact assessments and community health need assessments can be used for local health equity monitoring processes- helping to identify, understand, access, and measure inequities.

Social value

Impact of the urban environment on health inequalities

  • The European Health Equity Status Report: identifies five essential conditions for health equity: (i) good quality and accessible health services, (ii) income security and social protection, (iii) decent living conditions, (iv) social and human capital, and (v) decent work and employment conditions.
  • The Marmot Review Fair Society, Healthy Lives: the ‘Marmot review’ or the ‘Marmot report’ was commissioned by the UK government to investigate the causes of health inequalities in England and to propose strategies to address them, including to ‘Create and develop healthy and sustainable places and communities’.
  • Health Equity in England: The Marmot Review 10 Years On: an update of the review by the Health Foundation 10 years later.

Green gentrification and health

  • Green Gentrification and Health: A Scoping Review: A Collection of research exploring how green initiatives can result in gentrification of neighbourhoods, and how this can impact health, well-being, and health pathways (e.g., physical activity, affordable housing).
  • (In)Justice in Urban Greening and Green Gentrification Urban: a chapter from the Barcelona School of Ecological Economics and Political Economy investigating the processes of green gentrification for historically marginalized residents – working-class groups, minorities, and immigrants.

Identification of local needs

  • Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD): datasets by postcode or local authority area showing small area measures of relative deprivation across each of the constituent nations of the United Kingdom.
  • Census data: Socio-demographic information and data related to health and disabilities from the Office of National Statistics.
  • Joint strategic needs assessment: Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs) and Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategies (JHWSs) are the means by which local leaders work together to understand and agree the needs of all local people, with the joint health and wellbeing strategy setting the priorities for collective action.

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